The present study was conducted for assessment of the phenotypic trait plasticity, interrelationships among host-pathogen traits as well as their spatial magnitudes at Indian hot arid regions (n =14) pertains to Ganoderma lucidum (soil borne pathogenic fungi and Prosopis cineraria (multipurpose agroforestry tree). In this study, various traits of P. cineraria (canopy cover, Diameter at Breast Height i.e. DBH and light interception under canopy and traits of G. lucidum fruiting body i.e. Pileus width, cover and stipe length were measured. Predictor (host traits) and response (pathogen traits) relationships were assessed through Partial Least Square (PLS) regression. Spatial pattern analysis of the studied traits belong to host and Ganoderma fruiting body were analyzed through using density based indices i.e. Index of dispersal, Lloyd’s mean crowding, Morisita’ index of dispersion and by using spatial autocorrelation technique (Moran’s I index). For host, the maximum and minimum trait plasticity was recorded for light intensity and canopy cover, respectively. While for G. lucidum, maximum was recorded for stipe length and pileus cover. Through PLS, we established the regression equations for pileus cover and width of pileus. Distance based spatial pattern analysis revealed the clumped pattern for pileus cover, stipe length and host cover, while uniform pattern was recorded for width of pileus and host DBH. Contrary to these, spatial autocorrelation (Morain’s I variograms) suggested the random nature of all the parameters. From disease management point of view, such results suggested that for specific diseased area, a general management prac-tice or recommendation can be formulated, but such practice cannot be promulgated for large geographical areas as the hostpathogen parameters complex showed randomness.
In the C. personata groundnut A. hypogaea (susceptible cv. GG-11) interaction, NADPH oxidase enzyme activity was induced 24 hours after the inoculation which increased cons-tantly. On TLC profiling, one unique band was only found in disease state of groundnut having λ max at 305 nmt in UV spectral scanning. GC–MS study showed to be a Hexade-canoic acid methyl ester with molecular formula C18H36O2. The IR spectrum (KBr, ν, cm-1): 2852-2926 (aliphatic-C-H str.), 1603 (-C=O str.), 1120 (C-O ester str.) showed absorptions at 1603 and 1120 cm-1 indicating the presence of carbonyl and ester functional group respectively. The 1H NMR and The 13C NMR spectrum obtained were in agreement with present compound was Hexa decanoic acid methyl ester also called palmitic acid having molecular formula C18H36O2. Palmitic acid resulted in increased production of the NADPH oxidase and subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Simultaneous presence of palmitic acid in disease state and induced activity of NADPH oxidase activity with enhanced disease incidence in groundnut shows relationship between palmitic acid and NADPH oxidase during pathogenecity. Thus, palmitic acid mediated induction of NADPH oxidase in groundnut might be the factor to focus to combat pathogenesis of C. personata.
In the present study, induction of physical and chemical mutagens was used to hand pick morpho-logical mutants in M2 and M3 generations. Not much evidence is accessible on the nutrient and biochemical composition of Phaseolus lunatus L. Hence in the current investigation, an attempt has been made to comprehend the nutritional and biochemical valuation of Phaseolus lunatus L. (lima bean) which is consumed by tribals. The biochemical analysis of leaf, seed and immature pod content of lima bean were used to estimate chlorophyll (a, b) and protein content. Maximum chlorophyll content was observed in dark green leaf mutant and minimum was documented in robust mutant. Total volume of chlorophyll in lima bean was highly significant and had positive correlation with Chl a and Chl b at 1% significance level. In current estimation of proteins, the pods, dry seeds and leaves displayed increase in total protein in many viable mutants of lima bean. As related to control protein in seeds increased as the dose/concentration of gamma rays, ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) and combination of both mutagens increased. Leaf protein content in M3 generation mutants showed 4 to 6%. Highest total protein was seen in dark green leaf and lowermost was in robust mutant. Compared to control there was positive shift in mean value of the total leaf protein. Total protein content for immature pods raised to 3.9 to 5.9%. Early flowering mutants had maximum and tall mutants had minimum protein value. Dark green leaf mutant (27.8) had maximum and late flowering mutant (30.0%) had minimum total protein content in them.
Tribal region of southern Rajasthan remained agriculturally backward and its people poor even from colonial and feudal period. Instead of developing agriculture and allied sector, its forest, minerals and human resources are arbitrarily exploited. Dungarpur is one of such a district which has 70.82% of its total population tribal and comes under 100 backward districts of India. Analysing and using long term data and related reports, the agricultural situation and peasant’s condition of this district are assessed. The present status of natural and human resources has been depicted and their problems and potentials are worked out. Arable lands in the district are just 45.12% and that of net sown area 34.84%. Forest though constitute 16.72% but 88.5% of them are degraded/ underutilized. Gross irrigated area is 12.91% and irrigation intensity 102%. Surprisingly, 46% irrigation wells are lying dry. Crude maize-wheat cropping system does not support livelihood. Tanks/reservoirs too are in deteriorated condition. Predominant marginal & eroded rainfed lands; meagre livelihood assets; chronic poverty, misery and deprivation; and weak health and education system are major factors for backwardness of this tribal dominated district. The district falls in bottom lines in composite index for agriculture and livestock sector and human development index in the State. However potentials and avenues are still there to overcome the above challenges to a great extent.
Due to intensive cultivation and use of poor quality ground water, the soils are rapidly becoming deficient in Iron. To investigate its impact on our food, a research project was framed. The four most commonly consumed green leafy vegetables i.e. Mustard, Fenugreek, Spinach and Amaranth were grown in both “iron deficient” and “ iron sufficient” conditions at five different locations. Iron contents in produced vegetable leaves were found many times higher when grown in “Iron sufficient soil conditions” in comparison of “Iron deficient soil conditions”. In Amaranth that was 182.78 ppm against 27.52 ppm. In Spinach 174.09 ppm against 39.42 ppm. In Fenugreek 169.81 ppm against 45.18 ppm. In Spinach 185.18 ppm against 48.19 ppm. The research indicates serious disturbances in food chain due to Iron deficiencies in Soils
Rangelands are major source of fodder for grazing/ browsing livestock in arid region of Rajasthan. Productivity of these lands is low and vegetation is also in degraded state. Increasing livestock population, decrease in area available for grazing; shrinking village pastureland, and lack of proper grazing schedule and management have resulted in degradation of palatable vegetation and soil resource in grazing land. Silvi-pasture approach for restoration of grazing land, based on field experience has been discussed. Silvi-pasture for rejuvenation of grazing land increases production of vegetative cover, conservation of soil resources, efficient utilization of rainfall, increase stored soil moisture and recycling of nutrients. The enhance carbon sequestration in form of above ground biomass and below ground biomass improves environment. Appropriate silvipasture practices need to be adopted in light of changing socio-techno-economy complex, to sustain rangeland productivity for better quality life of majority of poor residents.
A large number of genetically modified (GM) crops, including both food and non-food crops carrying novel traits have been developed and released for commercial agriculture production. Soybean, maize, canola and cotton for the traits insect resistance and herbicide tolerance are the most crops under commercial cultivation worldwide. In addition, many other GM crops are under development and not yet released commercially. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in its report, the State of Food Security and Nutrition within the World 2017, highlights the severity of food security and mal nourishment problem in most of the Asian and developing countries. GM crops could be an option for nutrients. The increasing cultivation of genetically modified crops has raised a wide range of concerns with respect to food safety, environmental effects and socio-economic issues. Here, we discussed the present status of GM crops research, regulatory framework, and challenges involved transgenic plants acceptance in India.
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Jodhpur - 342001 (Rajasthan)
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